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Scottish Palliative Care Guidelines print pdf


  • Prommer EE.  Ketamine for pain:  An update of uses in Palliative Care.  Journal of Palliative Medicine 2012;15(4):474-483
  • Quibell R, Prommer EE, Mihalyo M.  Ketamine.  Journal of Pain & Symptom Management 2011;41(3):640-649
  • Twycross R and Wilcock A. Palliative Care Formulary (Fourth Edition). Ltd, Nottingham, 2011.
  • Hanks G et al.  The Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine(Fourth edition).  Oxford Univeristy Press, 2010.
  • Fallon M, Welsh J. The role of ketamine in pain control. European Journal of Palliative Care 1996; 3:143-146.
  • Mercadante S. Ketamine in cancer pain: an update. Palliative Medicine 1996; 10: 225-230.
  • Edmonds P. The role of ketamine in the management of chronic pain. CME Bulletin Palliative Medicine 1998; 1:3-5.
  • Grant I, Nimmo W, Clements J. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of IM and oral ketamine. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1981; 53:805-809.
  • Enarson M, Hays H, Woodroffe M. Clinical experience with oral ketamine. Journal Pain & Symptom Management 1999; 5: 384-386.
  • Bell RF. Low-dose subcutaneous ketamine infusion and morphine tolerance. Pain 1999; 83: 101-103
  • Fitzgibbon E, Hall P, Schroder C et al. Low Dose Ketamine as an Analgesic Adjuvant in Difficult Pain Syndromes: A Strategy for Conversion from Parenteral to Oral Ketamine. Journal Pain & Symptom Management 2002; 23(2): 165-170.
  • Beitez-Rosario M, Feria M, Salinas-Martin A. A retrospective comparison of the dose ratio between subcutaneous and oral ketamine. Journal Pain & Symptom Management 2003; 25: 400-402.
  • Kannan T, Saxena A, Bhatnagar, Barry A. Oral ketamine as an adjuvant to oral morphine for neuropathic pain in cancer patients. Journal Pain & Symptom Management 2002; 23: 6065.
  • Bell R, Eccleston C, Kalso E. Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library. Issue 3, 2004. Oxford: Update Software
  • Hocking G, Cousins M. Ketamine in chronic pain management: an evidence-based review. AnaesthAnalg. 2003; 97: 1730-9
  • Visser E, Schug S. The role of ketamine in pain management. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 2006; 60: 341-348
  • Webster L, Walker M. Safety and efficacy of prolonged outpatient ketamine infusions for neuropathic pain. American Journal of Therapeutics 2006; 13: 300-5

Stability References

  • Watson D, Lin M, Morton A et al. Compatibility and stability of dexamethasone sodium phosphate and ketamine hydrochloride subcutaneous infusions in polypropylene syringes. Journal Pain & Symptom Management 2005; 30: 80-86
  • Twycross R and Wilcock A. Palliative Care Formulary (Fourth Edition). Ltd,  Nottingham, 2011.
  • Dickman A, Schneider J and Varga J. The Syringe Driver (Third Edition). Oxford University Press 2011.